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我国激光切割加工质量评判标准【很全面!】

2018-05-09 15:25:41 常州亿创钣金加工厂 阅读

目前我国在大功率激光切割加工及相关设备方面的技术已经十分成熟,但精密激光切割加工技术的自主研发和应用尚处于起步阶段,无论是在激光切割加工设备上还是加工技术上都依赖国外进口。因此,面对西方发达国家的技术垄断,掌握精密激光切割加工技术及相关设备的生产制造,将对发展民族工业,提高我国的科技竞争力具有重要的意义。

At present, the technology of high power laser cutting and related equipment has been very mature in our country, but the independent research and application of the precision laser cutting technology is still in its infancy, which depends on the foreign import on both the laser cutting equipment and the processing technology. Therefore, in the face of the technological monopoly of western developed countries, mastering the manufacturing of precision laser cutting technology and related equipment will be of great significance for the development of national industry and the improvement of the competitiveness of China's science and technology.

激光切割加工作为21世纪的先进制造技术,具有广阔的发展前景。但它作为发展中的新生加工技术还不成熟,它并不像传统加工技术那样已经形成一套完善的理论和规范的流程。所以,在进行激光切割加工时,必须进行调查研究,借鉴前人经验。结合实际条件,采用最合适的加工工艺。技术的进步不仅依赖高性能的设备系统和加工条件,还需要进行充分的理论研究和逻辑推导,结合大量的工艺试验和结果分析。

As an advanced manufacturing technology in twenty-first Century, laser cutting has broad prospects for development. But it is not mature as a developing new technology. It has not formed a perfect theoretical and normative process as traditional processing technology. Therefore, in the process of laser cutting, we must investigate and learn from previous experience. Combined with the actual conditions, the most suitable processing technology is adopted. The progress of technology not only depends on the high performance equipment system and processing conditions, but also requires sufficient theoretical research and logical deduction, combined with a large number of process experiments and results analysis.

在一般材料的激光切割加工过程中,由于切割速度较快,零件产生的热变形很小,切割零件的尺寸精度主要取决于激光切割加工机的工作台的机械精度和控制精度。在脉冲激光切割加工加工中,采用高精度的切割装置和控制技术,尺寸精度可以到um级别。

In the process of laser cutting of general materials, because of the fast cutting speed, the thermal deformation of the parts is very small. The size accuracy of the cutting parts depends mainly on the mechanical precision and control precision of the laser cutting machine worktable. In the process of pulse laser cutting, high precision cutting device and control technology are adopted, and the dimension accuracy can reach um level.

激光切割加工的质量评价,国际上至今还没有一个统一的标准。至今我国也尚无有关激光切割加工质量的标准,检测激光切割加工质量的主要依据是JIS和WES(焊接规格)。在CEN(欧洲标准化机构)和ISO(国际标准化机构)中有关于激光切割加工的标准化问题。以EU为主提供的有关ISO9000系列质量保证方法,对激光切割加工标准和标准试样规定等进行了研究,其内容包括:切割质量等级划分、设定样品和加工样品的标准、光学系统、价格样品的机种及光束特性等。

There is no uniform standard in quality evaluation of laser cutting. Up to now, there is no standard about laser cutting quality in China. The main basis for testing laser cutting quality is JIS and WES (welding specification). In CEN (European Standardization agency) and ISO (International Standardization Organization), there is standardization of laser cutting. The ISO9000 series quality assurance method is mainly provided by EU, and the laser cutting processing standard and standard sample specification are studied. The contents include: cutting quality grade division, setting sample and processing sample standard, optical system, price sample machine and light beam characteristics, etc.

对于激光切割加工加工而言,评价其加工质量主要包括以下几个原则:

1、切割光滑、无条纹、没有脆性断裂;

2、切缝宽度窄,这主要与激光束光斑直径大小有关;

3、切缝垂直度好,热影响区小;

4、没有材料燃烧,没有熔化层形成,没有大的熔渣;

5、切口表面粗糙镀,表面粗糙度的大小是衡量激光切割加工表面质量的关键。

除了上述原则外,加工过程中熔化层的状态和最终成型,直接影响着上述加工质量评价指标。

For laser cutting processing, the evaluation of its machining quality mainly includes the following principles:

1. Smooth cutting, no stripe and no brittle fracture.

2. The width of slit is narrow, which is mainly related to the spot diameter of laser beam.

3. The perpendicularity of the cutting seam is good, and the heat affected zone is small.

4, no material burning, no melting layer formation, no big slag.

5. The rough surface of the cut is plated. The roughness of the surface is the key to measure the surface quality of laser cutting.

In addition to the above principles, the state of the melted layer and the final forming process directly affect the quality evaluation index.

激光切割加工表面粗糙度主要取决于下列三个方面:①切割系统的固有参数,如光斑模式、焦距等;②切割过程中可调节的工艺参数,如功率大小、切割速度、辅助气体类型和压力等;③加工材料的物性参数,如对激光的吸收率、熔点、熔融金属氧化物黏度系数、金属氧化物表面张力等。此外,加工件的厚度也对激光切割加工表面质量有很大的影响。相对而言,金属工件的厚度越小,切割表面粗糙度等级越高。

The surface roughness of laser cutting is mainly determined by the following three aspects: (1) the intrinsic parameters of the cutting system, such as the pattern of spot, the focal length, etc.; (2) the adjustable technological parameters in the process of cutting, such as the power size, cutting speed, auxiliary gas type and pressure, etc.; (3) the physical parameters of the processed material, such as the absorption of the laser Rate, melting point, viscosity coefficient of molten metal oxide and surface tension of metal oxide. In addition, the thickness of the workpiece also has a great impact on the surface quality of laser cutting. Relatively speaking, the smaller the thickness of the metal workpiece, the higher the roughness of the cutting surface.

要获得较好的表面质量等级,必须对激光功率、切割速度等工艺参数进行多次优化处理。一般而言,对具有相同特征性和厚度的材料,工艺参数有一组最佳切割工艺参数。也将得出不同的切口表面质量。金属材料的熔点低、导热系数大、熔融物黏度系数小、金属氧化物表面张力小,激光切割加工时易于获得较高的表面质量。激光切割加工平板时,易于测量表面质量,但在进行精细加工或切割一些复杂图案时,就很难对其进行直接的测量,只能借助优化试验参数来对其表面质量进行控制。因此,为便于实现自动化切割,应建立起外在优化参数与表面质量等级的对应关系。

To obtain a better surface quality grade, we must optimize the processing parameters of laser power and cutting speed for many times. Generally speaking, for the materials with the same characteristics and thickness, the technological parameters have a set of optimal cutting parameters. The surface quality of different cuts will also be obtained. The metal material has low melting point, large thermal conductivity, small viscosity coefficient of molten material and small surface tension of metal oxide. It is easy to obtain high surface quality during laser cutting. Laser cutting is easy to measure the surface quality, but it is difficult to direct the measurement of the surface quality when it is fine machining or cutting some complex patterns. The surface quality can only be controlled with the help of the optimized test parameters. Therefore, in order to facilitate automatic cutting, the corresponding relationship between external optimization parameters and surface quality grades should be established.


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