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解读激光切割过程中产生焦点位置误差的因素

2018-05-13 16:44:24 常州亿创钣金加工厂 阅读

就当下咱们济宁激光切割的工作过程中,产生焦点和被加工对象表面之间相对位置之间发生变化的因素有很多,这些因素可能造成激光焦点位置和理想给定位置发生偏差。这些误差有些是非常有规律性的,能够通过定量补偿方法进行补偿,但一些误差是属于随机误差,只能通过在线检测和控制来解决。
In the process of laser cutting in Jining, there are many factors that produce the change between the focus and the relative position between the surfaces of the processed objects. These factors may cause the deviation of the laser focus position and the ideal location. Some of these errors are very regular and can be compensated by the method of quantitative compensation, but some errors are random errors, which can only be solved by on-line detection and control.

导致激光切割过程中产生焦点位置误差的原因分析

只能通过在线检测和控制来消除的随机误差有:

工件几何误差。激光切割加工的对象为板材或覆盖件型零件,由于各种原因的影响,加工对象表面具有起伏不平,且在切割过程中的热效应的影响也会产生薄板零件的表面变形,对于1维激光切割加工,覆盖件在压制成型过程中也会产生表面的不平,所有这些,都会产生激光焦点与被加工对象表面的位置与理想位置发生随机变化。

工件装夹装置产生的误差。激光切割加工的工件是放在针状工作台上,由于加工误差、长时间与工件之间的磨损和激光的烧伤,针床会出现凸凹不平,这种不平也会产生薄钢板和激光焦点之间的位置的随机误差。

编程产生的误差。在维激光切割加工过程中,复杂曲面上的加工轨迹是通过直线、圆弧等拟合的,这些拟合曲线和实际曲线存在一定误差,这些误差使得实际焦点和加工对象表面的相对位置和理想编程位置产生一定误差,而有些示教编程系统也会引入一些偏差。(具体可查看森宝达《详解激光切割的技术运用与异常问题》的相关介绍)

被加工工件表面凸凹不平、工件装夹方式、机床的几何误差以及机床在负载力下的变形、工件在加工过程中的热变形等都会造成激光焦点位置和理想给定位置(编程位置)发生偏差,加工人员和设计师在工作过程中应该多加注意。

Cause analysis of focal position error in laser cutting process

The random errors that can only be eliminated by online detection and control are:

Geometric error of the workpiece. The object of laser cutting is plate or cover parts. Because of the influence of various reasons, the surface of the machining object is undulating, and the surface deformation of the sheet parts will be produced by the influence of heat effect during the cutting process. For the 1 dimension laser cutting, the surface of the panel will also be produced during the pressing forming process. All these will cause random changes in the location of laser focus and the location of the object.

The error produced by the clamping device of the workpiece. The laser cutting workpiece is placed on a needle like worktable. Due to the machining error, the long time with the wear between the workpiece and the laser burn, the needle bed will appear convex and concave, which will also produce random errors between the position of the thin plate and the laser focus.

The error produced by programming. In the process of laser cutting, the machining trajectory on a complex surface is fitted by a straight line and a circular arc. There is a certain error between these fitting curves and the actual curves. These errors make the relative position of the actual focus and the surface of the object surface and the ideal programming position error, and some teaching programming systems also have a certain error. Some deviations will be introduced. (specifically, we can see the introduction of the technology application and abnormal problems of laser cutting).

The uneven surface of the machined workpiece, the clamping way of the workpiece, the geometric error of the machine tool, the deformation of the machine tool under the load force and the thermal deformation of the workpiece in the process of machining will cause the deviation of the position of the laser focus and the ideal position (the programming position). The processing personnel and the designers should add more attention to the work process.  Meaning.

影响激光切割精度的因素:

一、工件材质对激光切割精度有一定影响。同样情况下,不锈钢要比铝的切割精度高,切面光滑一些。

二、工件厚度越大,精度越低,切缝越大。由于激光光束为锥形,切缝也是锥形,厚度0、3MM的不锈钢比2MM的切缝小的多。

三、激光束通过聚焦后的光斑的大小.激光束聚集后的光斑越小,切割精度越高,特别是切缝较小,最小的光斑可达0、01mm。

四、工作台的走位精度决定着切割的重复精度工作台精度越高,切割的精度越高。

The factors that affect the precision of laser cutting are:

First, the material of the workpiece has certain effect on the accuracy of laser cutting. In the same case, stainless steel has higher cutting accuracy than aluminum and smooth section.

Two, the larger the workpiece thickness, the lower the accuracy, the larger the slit. Because the laser beam is conical, the slit is also tapered, and the stainless steel with thickness of 0 and 3MM is much smaller than that of 2MM.

Three. The size of the light spot after the laser beam is focused. The smaller the spot of the laser beam is, the higher the cutting precision, especially the smaller slit, and the smallest spot can reach 0, 01mm.

Four. The accuracy of the workbench determines the accuracy of the cutting. The higher the accuracy of the worktable, the higher the accuracy of cutting.


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