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激光切割工艺有哪几种类型?工作原理

2018-05-31 21:23:02 常州亿创钣金加工厂 阅读

 目前很多朋友对于激光切割机的工作原理已经非常了解了,不过对于实际的操作和工艺类型,可能还缺乏深入的了解。接下来,我们就针对这个方面的问题来和大家分析一下,希望有所帮助。

   结合目前的情况来分析,关于激光切割的具体工艺主要可以分为以下几种类型:

    第一种就是熔化切割。在采用这种类型的激光切割工艺时,随着入射激光束功率密度的增大,当达到某一数值之后,光照照射点位置的材料内部就会开始蒸发,并逐渐形成孔洞。只要出现这种小孔,那么就能够快速的吸入大量的入射光束能量。进而这些小孔将会被熔化金属壁所包围,之后与光束同轴的辅助气流会带走孔洞周围的熔融材料。

    同时,由于工件的移动,这些小孔将会逐渐沿着激光切割的切割方向同时横移,从而形成一条切缝。与此同时,激光束将会继续沿着这条缝的前沿照射,熔化材料持续或者是脉动地从缝内被吹走。

    第二种工艺其实就属于汽化切割。也就是说,在激光切割过程中,由于高功率密度激光束不断进行加热,因而材料的温度将会逐渐上高,直到达到沸点温度,而这个过程非常迅速,因而可以避免热传导造成的熔化,所以部分材料是以汽化成蒸汽消失。

    此外还有一种工艺叫做控制断裂切割。这种工艺方式通常是应用于那些在受热之后,容易受到破坏的脆性材料。在激光切割过程中,通过激光束加热进行高速、可控的切断,即是控制断裂切割,此时所使用的激光束能够引导裂缝在任何需要的方向产生。

At present, many friends have been very familiar with the principle of the laser cutting machine, but there may be a lack of deep understanding of the actual operation and process types. Next, we will analyze this problem with you, hoping to be helpful.

Combined with the current situation, the specific technology of laser cutting can be divided into the following types:

The first is to melt and cut. With this type of laser cutting process, with the increase of the power density of the incident laser beam, when a certain value is reached, the interior of the material at the location of the illuminating point will begin to evaporate and gradually form holes. As long as there is such a small hole, it can quickly absorb a large number of incident beam energy. These holes will then be surrounded by molten metal walls, and then the auxiliary air stream coaxial with the beam will take away the molten material around the hole.

At the same time, due to the movement of the workpiece, these holes will gradually move along the cutting direction of laser cutting, thus forming a slit. At the same time, the laser beam will continue to irradiate along the front of the seam, and the molten material will be blown away continuously or pulsating from the seam.

The second technology is actually vaporized cutting. In other words, in the process of laser cutting, the temperature of the material will be gradually higher, until the temperature of the boiling point is reached to the temperature of the high power density laser beam, and the process is very rapid, so that the melting of heat conduction can be avoided, so that some materials are vaporized into vapour.

In addition, there is another technology called controlled fracture cutting. This process is usually applied to brittle materials which are easy to be damaged after being heated. In the process of laser cutting, the laser beam is heated to cut off high speed and controllable, that is, to control fracture cutting. The laser beam used in this process can guide the crack in any direction needed.



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