常州亿创钣金加工厂专业从事精密钣金加工、激光切割加工为主的钣金加工型厂家

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现代数控技术中钣金加工的应用

2018-06-07 10:29:18 常州亿创钣金加工厂 阅读

现代数控技术中钣金加工的应用

数控技术在钣金机床上得到了广泛应用,它解决了通快激光切割加工中存在的零件精度高、形状复杂、批量大等问题。数控钣金机床包括数控剪板机、数控激光切割机、数控冲床、数控弯板机、焊接机、火焰切割机等。它们在生产中的应用大大提高了钣金加工能力、使钣金件在质量上、产量上得到保证,同时也大大的降低了工人的劳动强度。

数控冲床具有以下特点:

(1)全自动集中润滑;

(2)冲床模具自动冷却和润滑

(3)液压超载保护器屏幕显示和自动重新设置;

(4)配备有气动/液压操作可变压力板料夹;

(5)可全面支撑大型板料的特大工作台;

(6)高准确性,高速低噪音的液压数控冲床;

(7)能简易进行模具更换和安全连锁的滑动工作台;

(8)聚氨脂自由滚珠装置,防止材料表面划伤。

“随着钣金机械在航天、铁路交通、环保设备、空调电器、烟草机械、包装印刷、工程机械、纺织机械等许多行业的广泛应用。钣金加工也需要更多的高技术工人进行操作,良好的设备加上优秀的员工才能制造出良好的产品,使世界上有更多优秀的中国制造产品。”

科技不断发展,计算机在机械辅助设计上的应用,现代CAD/CAM、FMS、CIMS都在数控技术上得到广泛应用。数控机床自1952年在美国成功研制以来先后经历了五个发展阶段。随着微电子和计算机技术的日益成熟,推动了我国数控技术的发展,国产数控系统相继开发成功,使我国数控机床在品质上、性能上得到了保障。由于数控机床有着对工件改型的适应性强、加工精度高、提高生产率等特点,因此在各领域得到了推广应用。

剪板下料在钣金加工过程中是第一道工序,下料的准确度直接影响后面工序的加工质量,数控剪板机的应用保证了下料的尺寸及下料对角线的工差。数控剪板机是由数控装置、伺服系统、测量装置及机床组成。伺服系统是由三部伺服电动机和伺服驱动装置组成。机床前定位有两部伺服电机,通常一台主电机单独工作,加工范围2-500mm,如加工斜边则副电机工作,数控系统给出两个不同的指令形成斜边。后定位有一部伺服电机,主要加工大板面的产品,加工范围150--4000mm。如上海产QC12K系列数控剪板机配备瑞士CYBELEC DNC60系列可储存36个顺序,内部存储记忆量100个顺序。

机床操作者根据零件图和工艺要求确定加工方案编写程序单。操作者通过机床的操作面板,在EDIT方式直接将程序写入程序内存中;随着CAD/CAM和CIMS机术的发展,操作员可以通过计算机相关软件将图形输入到计算机内生成程序,拷入磁盘通过磁盘驱动器输入数控系统。还可以用计算机与数控系统串行的方法输入。数控冲床的编程指令分为G代码M代码,G代码是用来指令机床进行加工运动和插补方式的功能。如G91增量命令、G90绝对命令、G29弧形冲孔、G68步冲园弧。M代码是指令机床做一些辅助动作的代码。如M30程序停止。检验程序正确后,松开卡钳放入工件关闭卡钳。起动油泵及冲头执行程序完成加工。

S冲压是钣金加工中一个重要环节,数控冲床可以代替过去三台冲床的加工能力。大大提高了生产率。数控冲床是一种用途广泛的机床,有单冲头和转塔两种。本文以CNC1000型为例,该机床产地意大利。属于C型结构的机床,加工范围:1270×1000mm,转塔有19个模具工位,分上下两部分分别装模具的凸模和凹模,凹模外部尺寸直径25.4mm、47.62mm、88.9mm、125.43mm、158.4mm、210.00mm,数控冲床一般有X、Y、Z三轴。X轴是机床0度方向,Y轴是机床90度方向,Z轴安装在转塔上是控制模具角度的装置。

数控弯板机的特点:

(1)程序建立后可自动或半自动工作,程序自动循环使工件一次加工完成从而改变了半自动加工时工件批量大、工序复杂的不便。

(2)数控系统自动计算油压避免超压对机床造成损坏。

(3)2D、3D图形输入功能的引入方便了复杂工件的加工,提高了加工效率。

(4)各种装置的增加改进了加工工艺,减小了操做者的劳动强度。

随着钣金机械在航天、铁路交通、环保设备、空调电器、烟草机械、包装印刷、工程机械、纺织机械等许多行业的广泛应用。钣金加工也需要更多的高技术工人进行操作,良好的设备加上优秀的员工才能制造出良好的产品,使世界上有更多优秀的中国制造产品。

数控冲床加工工艺具有以下特点:

加工精度高。孔边距工差0.2mm,孔距工差0.5mm/m。

由于转塔上装有多种模具,使得工件一次装夹即刻完成全部加工内容。

机床可对工件单独加工或用群命令G98对工件批量加工,提高生产率。

工件在经历了下料、冲压两道工序后到达折弯工序。数控弯板机有着普通机床无法比拟的优点。如CASPRINI产地意大利,西门子数控系统,输入方法为手工编程,(1)通过控制面板直接输入板厚、模具号、抗拉强度、X轴尺寸、角度、工件长度、行程高度来完成编写。(2)对于一些形状复杂精度要求高的工件通过控制面板输入2D或3D图形,板厚,模具号利用人机对话的功能确定折弯顺序生成程序。程序生成后存放在程序缓充区内,如今后还要使用则存放在机床内存内,程序如需大量反复使用则要通过专用磁盘拷出备份。数控弯板机通常有前后两个拖料架,由数控系统控制根拒折弯角度确定拖料架仰起高度,这样就减轻了操作者的劳动强度。普通的数控弯板机有两个伺服电机驱动机床的X轴、Y轴。检测组件采用光栅尺,感应同步器,编码器等通常安装在机床的丝杠上,检测反馈装置将丝杠的位移量转换成电信号,并且反馈给数控装置,如果与指令值有0.02mm误差,则控制丝杠做出调整。高性能的弯板机在X轴两边各安装一个电机,使X轴可以加工斜边。在轴上各安装一个电机可加工两边不同角度的工件。

在后挡板下面增加一个电机使后挡板可以上下移动更方便了操作加工。普通的上动式弯板机由于液压系统在机床上面长期的使用造成下模弯曲,因此数控弯板机在机床下放安装一套液压系统,当上下模相互工作时该系统对下模施力减小下模的变形,延长下模的使用时间。

Application of sheet metal processing in modern numerical control technology

Numerical control technology has been widely used in sheet metal machine tools. It solves the problems of high precision, complex shape and large quantity of parts in TRUMPF laser cutting. CNC sheet metal machine tools include CNC shearing machine, CNC laser cutting machine, CNC punching machine, CNC bending machine, welding machine, flame cutting machine and so on. Their application in production greatly improved the processing capacity of sheet metal, guaranteed the quality and output of the sheet metal parts, and greatly reduced the labor intensity of the workers.

The CNC punch press has the following characteristics:

(1) full automatic centralized lubrication;

(2) automatic cooling and lubrication of punch die

(3) screen display and automatic reset of hydraulic overload protector;

(4) equipped with variable pressure plate clamp for pneumatic / hydraulic operation;

(5) it can fully support the large worktable of large sheet metal.

(6) high accuracy, high speed and low noise hydraulic CNC punching machine;

(7) sliding table with simple mould replacement and safety linkage can be easily carried out.

(8) polyurethane free ball device to prevent scratches on the surface of materials.

"With the wide application of sheet metal machinery in many industries, such as space, railway transportation, environmental protection equipment, air conditioning and electrical appliances, tobacco machinery, packaging and printing, engineering machinery, textile machinery and so on. Sheet metal processing also requires more high-tech workers to operate, good equipment and excellent employees can produce good products, so that there are more excellent Chinese manufacturing products in the world.

With the continuous development of science and technology and the application of computers in mechanical aided design, modern CAD/CAM, FMS and CIMS have been widely applied in numerical control technology. Since the successful development of CNC machine tools in the United States in 1952, it has gone through five stages. With the growing maturity of microelectronics and computer technology, the development of CNC technology in China has been promoted. The domestic CNC system has been developed successively, which ensures the quality and performance of CNC machine tools in China. Because CNC machine tool has the characteristics of adaptability to workpiece modification, high machining accuracy and high productivity, it has been widely applied in various fields.

The cutting plate is the first process in the process of sheet metal processing, and the accuracy of the blanking directly affects the processing quality of the following process. The application of the CNC shearing machine ensures the size of the blanking and the working difference between the diagonal line of the blanking. CNC shearing machine is composed of numerical control device, servo system, measuring device and machine tool. The servo system is made up of three servomotors and servo driving devices. There are two servo motors in front of the machine tool. Usually one main motor work alone, the machining range is 2-500mm, such as the auxiliary motor work of the machining oblique edge, and the CNC system gives two different instructions to form the sloping side. After positioning, there is a servomotor, mainly processing large panel products, processing range 150--4000mm. For example, the QC12K series CNC shearing machine produced in Shanghai is equipped with the Swiss CYBELEC DNC60 series, which can store 36 orders, and the internal storage memory volume has 100 orders.

According to the part drawing and process requirement, the machine operator determines the processing plan and compiling procedure list. The operator writes programs directly into the memory in the EDIT mode through the operation panel of the machine tool. With the development of CAD/CAM and CIMS, the operator can input the graphics into the computer through computer related software and copy it into the disk drive to enter the CNC system through disk drive. It can also be input by means of serial computer and CNC system.  NC punching machine programming instructions are divided into G code M code, G code is used to command the machine tool for processing movement and interpolation function. Such as G91 increment command, G90 absolute command, G29 arc piercing, G68 step arc. M code is the code that commands machine tools to do some auxiliary actions. For example, the M30 program stops. After the inspection procedure is correct, release the calipers and put them into the workpiece to close the calipers. Start the oil pump and punch execution program to complete the processing.

S stamping is an important part of sheet metal processing, CNC punching machine can replace the processing capacity of the past three punches. The productivity has been greatly improved. CNC punching machine is a widely used machine tool with two kinds of single punch and turret. Taking CNC1000 as an example, this machine tool is located in Italy. C type structure of machine tools, processing range: 1270 * 1000mm, the tower has 19 mold positions, divided into two parts of the die and die, respectively, the outer dimension diameter of the die 25.4mm, 47.62mm, 88.9mm, 125.43mm, 158.4mm, 210.00mm, the CNC punch press generally has X, Y, Z three axis. The X axis is the 0 degree direction of the machine tool, the Y axis is the 90 degree direction of the machine tool, and the Z axis is installed on the turret to control the angle of the die.

The characteristics of CNC bending machine:

(1) the program can work automatically or semi automatically after the program is established, and the program is automatically circulated to complete the work of the workpiece at one time and thus changes the inconvenience of large batch and complicated process in semi-automatic processing.

(2) numerical control system automatically calculates oil pressure to avoid damage to machine tools caused by overpressure.

(3) the introduction of graphical input function of 2D and 3D facilitates the processing of complex parts and improves the processing efficiency.

(4) the increase of various devices improves the processing technology and reduces the labor intensity of operators.

With the wide application of sheet metal in many industries, such as space, railway transportation, environmental protection equipment, air conditioning and electrical appliances, tobacco machinery, packaging and printing, engineering machinery, textile machinery and so on. Sheet metal processing also needs more high-tech workers to operate, good equipment and excellent employees can produce good products, so that there are more excellent Chinese manufacturing products in the world.


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