常州亿创钣金加工厂专业从事精密钣金加工、激光切割加工为主的钣金加工型厂家

常州亿创钣金加工厂

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钣金加工冲压件加工工艺流程?

2018-06-14 11:25:26 常州亿创钣金加工厂 阅读

根据钣金件结构的差异,工艺流程可各不相同,但总的不超过以下几点。

1、下料:下料方式有各种,主要有以下几种方式

①.剪床:是利用剪床剪切条料简单料件,它主要是为模具落料成形准备加工,成本低,精度低于0.2,但只能加工无孔无切角的条料或块料。

②.冲床:是利用冲床分一步或多步在板材上将零件展开后的平板件冲裁成形各种形状料件,其优点是耗费工时短,效率高,精度高,成本低,适用大批量生产,但要设计模具。

③.NC数控下料,NC下料时首先要编写数控加工程式,利用编程软件,将绘制的展开图编写成NC数拉加工机床可识别的程式,让其根据这些程式一步一刀在平板上冲裁各构形状平板件,但其结构受刀具结构所至,成本低,精度于0.15。

④.镭射下料,是利用激光切割方式,在大平板上将其平板的结构形状切割出来,同NC下料一样需编写镭射程式,它可下各种复杂形状的平板件,成本高,精度于0.1.

⑤.锯床:主要用下铝型材、方管、图管、圆棒料之类,成本低,精度低。

1.钳工:沉孔、攻丝、扩孔、钻孔

沉孔角度一般120℃,用于拉铆钉,90℃用于沉头螺钉,攻丝英制底孔。

2.翻边:又叫抽孔、翻孔,就是在一个较小的基孔上抽成一个稍大的孔,再攻丝,主要用板厚比较薄的钣金加工,增加其强度和螺纹圈数,避免滑牙,一般用于板厚比较薄,其孔周正常的浅翻边,厚度基本没有变化,允许有厚度的变薄30-40%时,可得到比正常翻边高度大高40-60%的高度,用挤薄50%时,可得最大的翻边高度,当板厚较大时,如2.0、2.5等以上的板厚,便可直接攻丝。

3.冲床:是利用模具成形的加工工序,一般冲床加工的有冲孔、切角、落料、冲凸包(凸点),冲撕裂、抽孔、成形等加工方式,其加工需要有相应的模具来完成操作,如冲孔落料模、凸包模、撕裂模、抽孔模、成型模等,操作主要注意位置,方向性。

4.压铆:压铆就本公司而言,主要有压铆螺母、螺钉、松不脱等,其是通过液压压铆机或冲床来完成操作,将其铆接到钣金件上,还有涨铆方式,需注意方向性。

5.折弯;折弯就是将2D的平板件,折成3D的零件。其加工需要有折床及相应折弯模具完成,它也有一定折弯顺序,其原则是对下一刀不产生干涉的先折,会产生干涉的后折。

l折弯条数是T=3.0mm以下6倍板厚计算槽宽,如:T=1.0、V=6.0F=1.8、T=1.2、V=8、F=2.2、T=1.5、V=10、F=2.7、T=2.0、V=12、F=4.0

l折床模具分类,直刀、弯刀(80℃、30℃)

l铝板折弯时,有裂纹,可增加下模槽宽式增加上模R(退火可避免裂纹)

l折弯时注意事项:Ⅰ图面,要求板材厚度,数量; Ⅱ折弯方向

Ⅲ折弯角度;Ⅳ折弯尺寸;Ⅵ外观、电镀铬化料件不许有折痕。

折弯与压铆工序关系,一般情况下先压铆后折弯,但有料件压铆后会干涉就要先折后压,又有些需折弯—压铆—再折弯等工序。

6.焊接:焊接定义:被焊材料原子与分子距京达晶格距离形成一体

①分类:a熔化焊:氩弧焊、CO2焊、气体焊、手工焊

b压力焊:点焊、对焊、撞焊

c钎焊:电铬焊、铜丝

②焊接方式:aCO2气体保护焊

b氩弧焊

c点焊接等

d机器人焊

焊接方式的选用是根据实际要求和材质而定,一般来说CO2气体保护焊用于铁板类焊搠;氩弧焊用于不锈钢、铝板类焊接上,机器人焊接,可节省工时,提高工作效率和焊接质量,减轻工作强度。

③焊接符号:Δ角焊,Д、I型焊,V型焊接,单边V型焊接(V)带钝边V型焊接(V),点焊(O),塞焊或槽焊(∏),卷边焊(χ),带钝边单边V型焊(V),带钝之U型焊,带钝的J型焊,封底焊,逢焊

④箭头线和接头

⑤焊接缺失及其预防措失

点焊:强度不够可打凸点,强加焊接面积

CO2焊:生产率高,能源消耗少,成本低,抗锈能力强

氩弧焊:溶深浅,溶接速度慢,效率低,生产成本高,具有夹钨缺陷,但具有焊接质量较好的优点,可焊接有色金属,如铝、铜、镁等。

⑥焊接变形原因:焊接前准备不足,需增加夹具

焊接治具不良改善工艺

焊接顺序不好

⑦焊接变形效正法:

1.火焰效正法

2.振动法

3.锤击法

4.人工时效法

According to the difference of sheet metal structure, the process flow can be different, but the total does not exceed the following points.

1. Blanking: there are various ways of cutting materials, mainly in the following ways.

Scissors: it is a simple material for cutting the strip by cutting the cutting bed. It is mainly prepared for the molding of die blanking. The cost is low and the precision is less than 0.2.

(2). Punching machine: it is a kind of shape material that can be blanked out by one or more steps on the plate. The advantage is that it takes short time, high efficiency, high precision and low cost, and it is suitable for mass production, but it is necessary to design a mold.

(3).NC numerical control blanking, NC is the first to write the numerical control process program, using the programming software, the drawing of the expansion map is written into the NC number drawing machine tool can be identified, so that the program according to these programs one step on the plate blanking the flat plate, but its structure is under the tool structure, the cost is low, the precision is 0. 15.

(4). Laser cutting is used to cut the structure of the flat plate on a large plate by laser cutting. It needs to write a laser program like the NC material. It can lower the complex shape of the flat plate, and the cost is high and the precision is in the 0.1..

Sawing machine: mainly use lower aluminum profile, square tube, picture tube, round bar material and so on, with low cost and low precision.

1. fitter: sinking, tapping, reaming, drilling

The hole sinking angle is usually 120 degrees, which is used for pulling rivets, 90 degrees for countersunk screws, and for British bottom holes.

2. flanging: also called hole and hole, that is to draw a slightly larger hole on a smaller base hole, and then tapping, mainly using sheet metal processing with thin plate thickness, increasing its strength and number of threads to avoid sliding teeth, generally used for thin plate thickness, and the shallow flanging of the hole Zhou Zhengchang, the thickness is basically unchanged, allowing thickness to be thick. When the degree of 30-40% is thinner, the height of 40-60% higher than the normal flanging height can be obtained. The maximum flanging height can be obtained when it is thinned by 50%. When the thickness of the plate is larger, the thickness of the plate, such as 2, 2.5, etc., can be tapped directly.

3. punching machine: using die forming process, the general punching machine has punching, cutting angle, blanking, punching bulge (Bump), punching and tearing, drawing holes, forming and other processing methods. Its processing needs corresponding die to complete operation, such as punching die, punch die, tearing die, drawing die, molding mould, etc. Pay attention to the position and direction.

4. pressure rivet: pressure riveting on the company, the main pressure riveting nuts, screws, loose and so on, it is through the hydraulic pressure riveting machine or punch to complete the operation, it is riveted to sheet metal parts, there is also rising riveting way, need to pay attention to the direction.

5. bending; bending is to turn the flat parts of 2D into 3D parts. Its processing requires a folding bed and a corresponding bending die. It also has a certain bending order. The principle is that the next knife does not interfere with the first fold, resulting in a back break of interference.

L the number of bending bars is 6 times the thickness of the T=3.0mm thickness, such as T=1.0, V=6.0F=1.8, T=1.2, V=8, F=2.2, T=1.5, V=10, F=2.7, T=2.0, F=2.7, and so on.

L classification of folding machines, straight knives and scimitar (80 C, 30 C)

When the L aluminum plate is bent, there is a crack. The lower die groove can be added to increase the width of the upper die R (annealing can avoid cracks).

L points for attention when bending: I. surface, thickness, quantity, and bending direction.

Bending angle; IV bending size; VI appearance, chrome plating materials are not allowed to crease.

The relationship between bending and pressure riveting process, under the general condition of the first pressure riveting after bending, but there will be interference after the pressure riveting of the material will be first folded back pressure, and some need to bend - pressure riveting and then bending and other processes.

6. welding: definition of welding: the distance between atoms and molecules of the welded material is formed from the distance of Jing Da lattice.

Classification: a fusion welding: argon arc welding, CO2 welding, gas welding, manual welding.

B pressure welding: spot welding, butt welding and collision welding

C brazing: Electric chromium welding and copper wire

Welding method: aCO2 gas shielded welding

B argon arc welding

C point welding, etc.

D robot welding

The selection of welding methods is based on the actual requirements and materials. Generally speaking, CO2 gas shielded welding is used for iron plate welding; argon arc welding is used for stainless steel, aluminum plate welding and robot welding. It can save time, improve work efficiency and welding quality, and reduce work strength.

(3) welding symbols: Delta welding, I welding, V welding, single side V welding (V) with blunt side V welding (V), spot welding (O), plug welding or groove welding (V), edge welding (chi), single side V welding (V) with blunt side, dull U type welding, blunt J welding, bottom seal welding, and welding

Arrowhead line and joint

Welding loss and prevention measures

Spot welding: insufficient strength, bump, welding area.

CO2 welding: high productivity, low energy consumption, low cost and strong rust resistance.

Argon arc welding: shallow, slow, low speed, low efficiency, high production cost, with tungsten defects, but with good welding quality, it can weld non-ferrous metal, such as aluminum, copper and magnesium.

Reasons for welding deformation: insufficient preparation before welding, and need to increase fixture.

Bad improvement process of welding tool

Poor welding sequence

Welding deformation effect positive method:

1. flame effect positive method

2. vibration method

3. hammering method

4. artificial aging method



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