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离心风机使用过程中会出现哪些问题?怎么解决?

2018-07-28 19:04:55 常州亿创钣金加工厂 阅读

离心风机是一种将原动机机械能转换为输送气体、给予气体能量机械,它是水泥厂中不可少机械设备,主要有送离心风机、引离心风机、一次离心风机、密封离心风机和排离心风机等,离心风机实际运行中,特别是引离心风机运行条件较恶劣,故障率较高,迅速判断离心风机运行中故障产生原因,采取有力措施解决故障是工厂连续安全运行保障。离心风机故障类型繁多,原因也很复杂,但经调查发现实际运行中离心风机故障大多是由轴承振动、轴承温度高、动叶卡涩、保护装置误动造成的。

Centrifugal fan is a kind of mechanical energy that converts the mechanical energy of the original motive into the transport gas and gives the gas energy machinery. It is an indispensable mechanical equipment in the cement plant. It mainly includes the centrifugal fan, the centrifugal fan, the centrifugal fan, the sealed centrifugal fan and the centrifugal fan, etc., in the actual operation of the centrifugal fan, especially the centrifugal fan. The operation conditions are bad, the failure rate is high, and the cause of the failure of the centrifugal fan is quickly judged, and the effective measures to solve the fault are the guarantee of the continuous safe operation of the factory. The fault types of centrifugal blower are various and the reasons are very complicated, but it is found that the fault of centrifugal fan in actual operation is mostly caused by the vibration of the bearing, the high temperature of the bearing, the astringent of the movable leaf and the misoperation of the protective device.

一、离心风机轴承振动超标

离心风机轴承振动是运行中常见故障,离心风机振动会引起轴承和叶片损坏、螺栓松动、机壳和风道损坏等故障,严重危及离心风机安全运行。

离心风机轴承振动超标原因较多,如能针对不同现象分析原因采取恰当处理办法,往往能起到事半功倍效果。

One, the bearing vibration exceeding standard of centrifugal fan

The vibration of centrifugal fan bearing is a common fault in operation. The vibration of centrifugal fan will cause damage of bearing and blade, loosening of bolt, damage of casing and air duct and so on, which seriously endangers the safe operation of centrifugal fan.

There are many reasons why the vibration of the centrifugal fan exceeds the standard. If we can take appropriate measures for different reasons, we can get twice the result with half the effort.

1、处理叶片非工作面积灰降低离心风机振动

这类缺陷常见于磨机引离心风机,现象主要表现为离心风机运行中振动突然上升。这是当气体进入叶轮时,与旋转叶片工作面存一定角度,流体力学原理,气体叶片非工作面一定有旋涡产生,气体中灰粒旋涡作用会慢慢沉积非工作面上。机翼型叶片*易积灰,当积灰达到一定重量时叶轮旋转离心力作用将一部分大块积灰甩出叶轮。各叶片上积灰不可能完全均匀一致,聚集或可甩走灰块时间不一定同步,结果叶片积灰不均匀导致叶轮质量分布不平衡,使离心风机振动增大。

这种情况下,通常只需把叶片上积灰铲除,叶轮又将重新达到平衡,减少离心风机振动。实际工作中,通常处理方法是临时停机后打开离心风机机壳人孔门,检修人员进入机壳内清除叶轮上积灰。这样环境恶劣,存不安全因素,造成机组非计划停运,检修时间长,劳动强度大。

1. Deal with the non working area of blades and reduce the vibration of centrifugal fans.

This kind of defect is common in the centrifugal fan of the mill. The phenomenon is mainly due to the sudden rise in the vibration of the centrifugal fan. This is when the gas enters the impeller, and there is a certain angle with the working face of the rotating blade. The principle of fluid mechanics, the non working surface of the gas blade must have whirlpool, and the action of the gray particle swirl in the gas will slowly deposit on the non working surface. The wing blade is easy to accumulate ash, and when the ash reaches a certain weight, the impeller rotates centrifugal force to throw a large mass of ash out of the impeller. The dust accumulation on the blade can not be completely uniform, and the time of gathering or removing ash blocks is not always synchronized. The result of uneven ash accumulation results in uneven distribution of the mass distribution of the impeller and increases the vibration of the centrifugal fan.

In this case, the ash is usually removed and the impeller will be re balanced so as to reduce the vibration of the centrifugal fan. In actual work, the usual way of handling is to open the centrifugal fan shell and manhole door after temporary shutdown, and the maintenance personnel enter the casing to clear ash on the impeller. In such a bad environment, unsafe factors cause unplanned outage, long maintenance time and strong labor intensity.

2、风道系统振动导致引离心风机振动

烟、风道振动通常会引起离心风机受迫振动,离心风机出口扩散筒随负荷增大,进、出风量增大,振动也会随之改变。反之,离心风机进风口进风面积不平均,如挡板开闭不统一,也会引起叶轮振动。

2. Vibration of air duct system leads to vibration of centrifugal fan

The vibration of the smoke and air duct usually causes the forced vibration of the centrifugal fan. The inlet and outlet of the centrifugal fan will increase with the increase of the load, and the vibration will also change. Conversely, the inlet area of the centrifugal fan inlet is not uniform. If the baffle is closed, it will cause vibration of the impeller.

3、动、静部分相碰引起离心风机振动

生产实际中引起动、静部分相碰主要原因:

(1)叶轮和进风口(集流器)不在同一轴线上

(2)运行时间长后进风口损坏、变形。

(3)叶轮松动使叶轮晃动度大。

(4)轴承损坏

(5)主轴弯曲

不同情况采取不同处理方法。引起离心风机振动原因很多,其它如连轴器中心偏差大、基础或机座刚性不够、原动机振动引起等等,是多方面原因造成的结果。实际工作中应认真总结经验,多积累数据,掌握设备状态,摸清设备劣化规律,出现问题就能有放矢的采取相应措施解决。

3, the dynamic and static part of the collision caused the vibration of the centrifugal fan

The main reasons for the collision between moving parts and static parts in production practice are:

(1) impeller and inlet (collector) are not on the same axis.

(2) the running time is long and the back inlet is damaged and deformed.

(3) the loosening of the impeller makes the sloshing of the impeller large.

(4) bearing damage

(5) the bending of the spindle

Different treatments are taken in different situations. There are many reasons for the vibration of the centrifugal fan, such as the large deviation of the center of the shaft, the lack of rigidity of the base or the frame, the vibration of the original motive, and so on. It is the result of many reasons. In actual work, we should carefully sum up experience, accumulate more data, master the state of equipment, and find out the law of equipment deterioration, and we should take the corresponding measures to solve the problem.

二、轴承温度高Two. High temperature of bearing

离心风机轴承温度异常升高原因有三类:润滑不良、冷却不够、轴承异常。离心式离心风机轴承置于离心风机外,若是轴承疲劳磨损出现脱皮、麻坑、间隙增大引起温度升高,一般可以听轴承声音和测量振动等方法来判断,如是润滑不良、冷却不够原因则是较容易判断。而轴流离心风机轴承集中于轴承箱内,置于进气室下方,当发生轴承温度高时,离心风机运行,很难判断是轴承有问题润滑、冷却问题。实际工作中应先从以下几个方面解决问题。

There are three reasons for abnormal temperature rise of centrifugal fan bearing: poor lubrication, insufficient cooling and abnormal bearing. The centrifugal fan bearing is placed outside the centrifugal fan. If the bearing fatigue wear is peeled, flax pit, and gap increases the temperature increases, it can usually be judged by the methods of bearing sound and measuring vibration, such as bad lubrication and insufficient cooling, it is easier to judge.  The axial flow centrifugal fan bearing is concentrated in the bearing box and placed under the intake chamber. When the bearing temperature is high, the centrifugal fan is running. It is difficult to judge the problem of lubrication and cooling of the bearing. In actual work, we should first solve the problem from the following aspects.

1、加油是否恰当。应当定期工作要求给轴承箱加油。轴承加油后也会出现温度高情况,主加油过多。这时现象为温度持续不断上升,到达某点后(一般比正常运行温度高10℃~15℃左右)就会维持不变,然后会逐渐下降。
1, whether the refueling is appropriate. Regular work should be required to refuel the bearing box. Bearing oil will also appear after the temperature is high, the main refueling too much. At this point, the temperature continues to rise, after reaching a point (generally 10 to 15 degrees centigrade above normal operating temperature) will remain unchanged, and then gradually decrease.

2、冷却离心风机小,冷却风量不足。轴承箱没有有效冷却,轴承温度会升高,比较简单同时又节约厂用电解决方法是轮毂侧轴承设置压缩空气冷却,当温度低时可以不开启压缩空气冷却,温度高时开启压缩空气冷却。
2. The cooling centrifugal fan is small, and the cooling air volume is insufficient. There is no effective cooling of the bearing box, the bearing temperature will increase, and the solution is simple at the same time, and the solution method is to set the compressed air cooling for the hub side bearing. When the temperature is low, the compressed air can not be opened, and the compressed air is cooled when the temperature is high. 

3、确认不存在上述问题后再检查轴常见的离心风机承箱

3, confirm that there is no such problem before checking common centrifugal fan bearing box.



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